Tuesday, September 19, 2017
Anti-Aircraft Artillery Fire
All anti-aircraft guns have a 360-degree arc of fire and may fire at any aircraft within 1250 meters horizontal ground distance. Each anti-aircraft gun has a maximum altitude range at which it may engage targets. A director connects each gun in an anti-aircraft battery. Searchlights hit the target once per turn, and then illuminate it for the rest of the turn, up to 3 phases. Radar fire control adds additional percentage chances to hit. Anti-Aircraft Artillery will fire during all three phases of the aircraft movement. Anti-aircraft guns may each fire at up to one aircraft per phase. Aircraft that fly through an anti-aircraft gun arc and end the phase outside the arc are fired on as in Challenge Fire. Aircraft in battery fire one “to hit” number together, and use the number of aircraft damage dice, as there are guns in the battery.
Anti-aircraft missile firing procedures are similar to anti-aircraft artillery. Missiles have a base "to hit" percentage modified by homing type. Missile systems may launch one ready to fire missile, per phase. However, there is a reloading delay depending on the missile type. Players may not reload and fire in the same phase. There is a plus 10% for infrared homing. Missile radars provide the same bonus as gun radars.
Different missile systems include the Shoulder fired Stinger, Mobile Chaparral system, Medium Hawk system, and Heavy Nike-Atlas system. All missile systems must be stationary to fire. Add 10% to the chance to hit a stationary aircraft.
Anti-aircraft missile defense consists of two methods, Passive and Active. Passive defense is built into the design of the aircraft. These aircraft are noted on the aircraft card as having passive defense. Missiles fired at aircraft equipped with passive defense don’t get the radar to hit bonus.
Any aircraft may use active defense. To use active defense, players must indicate which aircraft are using active defense measures at the beginning of the movement phase. Deduct 10% from the chance to hit with a missile fired at an aircraft using active defense.
Aircraft using “active defense” fire at ground targets at 10% lower than normal when using direct fire weapons. There is no penalty to aircraft equipped with passive defense. When firing using the artillery chart they will have five inches added to the deviation distance of the impact point of the ordnance. "On target" results are unaffected. There are several types of active defense. The effectiveness of homing devices is cut by flares, chaff and jamming.
Missile launchers fire one missile per phase up to the maximum number of missiles per launcher. A shoulder fired Redeye could fire once per phase, if reloads are available. A mobile Chaparral could fire one missile per phase for all three phases in one turn. Missile launchers take one phase to reload, if reloads are present on a supply vehicle or emplacement.
Monday, September 18, 2017
Replacements, Repairs and Rearming
Replacements and repairs are possible at the airfield for crew, engine, and airframe hits. Replacements take one turn for crew, and repairs take four turns for each engine or aircrew hit. All types of hits are cumulative. Aircraft are rearmed and refueled at a rate of one turn per engine.
When lighter-than-air craft lose all engines, they do not crash but they drift with the wind. An engine may be repaired on the ground at a rate of three turns per engine in need of repair.
The morale of aircraft crews affects firing in the same way as the ground troops. An ace with five kills counts as one level of “elite,” up to 95%.
Every plane type gets its own aircraft card showing its’ performance.
Sample Aircraft Card
A B-17 carries 17,000 pounds of bombs.
A B-29 carries 20,000 pounds of bombs.
Bomb sizes in pounds:
Other special bombs are available in specific historical scenarios but the bombs listed above are the ones on general issue. Blockbuster bombs, atomic bombs and others can only be carried by special aircraft as noted on their aircraft card. These bombs are not available unless specifically mentioned by the Bunkermeister at the beginning of the game.
Sunday, September 17, 2017
Bad Weather and Night
Aircraft visual combat may not occur in clouds, or fog. Aircraft that are not rated as all weather capable take one hit die every turn that they fly in a storm. Combat may take place at night only if the target has been illuminated by flares, searchlights or radar. Aircraft can take off or land at night only if they are night fighter, transports, or level bombers. The runway must be lighted.
Radar combat may be conducted if bad weather prohibits visual combat. Early radar allows combat to take place at a +10% bonus. Improved radar allows combat to occur with a +20% bonus. Modern radar allows combat with a +35% bonus.
Bombing Attacks at Night
For level bombers to be able to conduct attacks at night, pathfinders are needed to illuminate the target. Bombing is done on the B chart, if illuminated, on the D chart if it is not. Transports may drop parachutes if the drop zone is lighted. Night fighters, level bombers, and modern day/night capable aircraft do combat at night
Attack out of the Sun
At 0500 the sun is directly east, at 1200 hours the sun is directly south and at 2000 hours it is directly west. To simulate this, make a model of the sun and move it along the wall.
Aircraft that attack from out of the sun make the attack as an ambush. To attack from out of the sun, the firer must be higher than the target, and must be between the target and the sun. The sun covers a 90-degree arc measured off the centerline of the aircraft. The exception to "Ambush Fire" is that air superiority fighters equipped with modern radar will always be allowed return fire.
From 1944 to 1945 Japanese aircraft may be designated as a Kamikaze mission prior to take off. An air superiority aircraft must accompany each Kamikaze plane. A Kamikaze aircraft will do four times the normal damage.
Shot Down Aircraft
Aircrews bail out like pathfinders. A card is made for every crewmember. These cards are then dropped as if they were pathfinders. The drop zone point is where the plane was when it was hit. Aircrew adjusts down one percent bracket for casualties on rough terrain landings. Aircrews are armed with a pistol, colored smoke, and signal flares.
Any aircraft that are shot down will impact at a location straight ahead from the direction of travel, at a distance equal to the speed in one phase. Damage on the ground will be equal to a 500-pound bomb for every piston engine, 1000-pound bomb for every jet engine, and 2000-pound bomb for every rocket engine.
Over Water Missions
Over water missions will have crews with life vests. Single seat navy aircraft have a one man rubber rafts that drop with the crewman. Aircraft that carry crews of up to three men will drop a one may raft with each crewman. Larger aircraft will have one raft for every 10 crewmen or passengers. Rafts larger than one man will drop as if they are another crewmember.
Saturday, September 16, 2017
Gunfire is resolved simultaneously for all fixed gun tubes on an aircraft. They must all fire at the same target. Fixed guns fire at targets within 90 degrees of the front of the aircraft. Flexible guns may fire on any single target within their arc of fire. Aircraft using visual sighting may fire at any target that they can see, if the weapons are within range and able to bear on the target. Aircraft strafe attacks are made on targets that are within 1250m and within 90 degrees of the front of the aircraft. Aircraft with single barrel guns use the aircraft gun template with one set of leafs per barrel. Aircraft with multi-barrel guns roll a single “to hit” die to determine if the target is struck. Then use the total number of barrels to determine the number of hit location dice, with one die per barrel.
To compute the percentage chance to hit the target, check the aircraft data card. Determine the “to hit” modifiers. Add or subtract the “to hit” modifiers to the number on the to hit chart. Damage is determined by tossing one twenty sided die and one six sided die. If the number is on the chart, then the target is hit. If the target was hit, the six sided die will determine the nature of the damage. A result of 0 or less on the damage die is complete explosive destruction of the target aircraft and crew, cargo and passengers.
Any aircraft without one of the parts listed on the aircraft hit chart will suffer no damage. Consult the damage location chart to determine the nature of the damage. Aircraft that are carrying external stores will dogfight at a -50% chance to hit unless they jettison stores. Then they fight normally. Stores that are jettisoned fall harmlessly to the ground. External fuel tanks are considered as stores.
Aircraft may fire only at targets one level above, the same level, or one or two levels below. Aircraft diving on a flying target receive a 10% to hit bonus. Aircraft below a target receive a 10% deduction from the chance to hit.
Use the .30 caliber tripod chart for all .30 caliber weapons. Use the .50 caliber chart for all other guns, or combination of guns. Roll one hit location die for each gun firing. Check for armor at the hit location. If the firing weapon penetrated the armor, then crew, engine, fuel or airframe is destroyed. Armor will protect against .30 caliber and .50 caliber machine gun hits. When the pilot and co-pilot are killed or all engines are destroyed or the fuel is hit the airplane crashes. A hit on a weapon, destroys the weapon.
Engagement rules for aircraft vary with the capabilities of the aircraft. Aircraft types operate using visual sighting, attack targets within range of their weapons. In the World War One era aircraft were armed with .30 caliber machine guns. In World War Two, aircraft often carried .50 caliber machine guns, and small cannon of 20mm, or 37mm. As radar was developed the engagement ranges increased.
Some aircraft may have a long engagement range, greater than the size of the table. To simulate this, each side will chart the movement of their aircraft on a map overlay, every turn. The Bunkermeister can then compare the overlays with the master map, and mark the aircraft on the map, if they would have detected them. After marking the overlays, the Bunkermeister can return them to each player. Players may then announce if they wish to engage or not during their firing phase.
Aircraft Hit Location and Damage
0 EXPLOSIVE DESTRUCTION
Aircraft, crew, passengers, and cargo explode in a ball of flame and tiny bits fall harmlessly to earth. No chance to bail out, no damage to anyone on the ground.
One member of the aircrew is hit. Roll a die to determine which crew member is hit. Crewmember is automatically killed unless using wound rules. If the pilot and co-pilot are killed, the plane will crash and the remainder of the crew may bail out.
A Fuel damage result means that the fuel tanks have been hit. The aircraft catches on fire and the crew must bailout. Helicopters may auto-rotate within a 90-degree arc from direction of travel and must land within 1250m. Self-sealing fuel tanks and armored fuel tanks are not damaged unless the gun is larger than .50 caliber. Aircraft will trail black smoke.
An Engine damage result destroys one engine. On a single engine aircraft the target will crash immediately and the crew will bail out. Single engine helicopters cannot auto-rotate and will crash. On multi-engine aircraft the speed and range will be reduced, based on the total number of engines the aircraft has when it is undamaged. Aircraft will trail black smoke.
An AIRFRAME hit will take the aircraft "out of action" for the remainder of the turn, due to buffeting and control surface damage. There are three types of airframe hits, fuselage, wing and tail. Any attempt to make an attack will cause the aircraft to immediately crash and the crew will all be killed. The aircraft will have to come around and make another pass. The aircraft may resume normal operations at the beginning of the next turn. The aircraft may fire flexible weapons in defense only. The aircraft may not drop bombs or launch any form of ground attack or launch missiles of any type. The aircrew may bailout at any time. The aircraft will trail white smoke from the area hit. A second airframe hit in the same location will cause the plane to crash.
Damage to fuselage, and aborts the attack this turn.
Damage to wings, and aborts the attack this turn.
Damage to tail, and aborts the attack this turn.
Aircraft have four bursts of ammunition for all cannons and machine guns. All bombs of the same size drop all at once. All unguided rockets fire at the same time. Missiles fire one per phase.
1 Pilot 1 Pilot
2 Co-Pilot 2 Co-Pilot
3 Bombardier 3 Passenger
4 Navigator 4 Passenger
5 Gunner 5 Passenger
6 Gunner 6 Passenger
If there is no crewman of that type, go up one level. Example if you roll a 5 or 6 and there is on Gunner, then the navigator gets killed. If the Pilot & Co-Pilot are killed, aircraft crashes, crew may bail out. Results of less than 1 are a 1, if Pilot is already dead, go back to the Co-Pilot.